# Research papers on floating tunnels

The numerical simulation of the velocity field is carried out following the suggestions in [25].

This is assumed as a realization of a space-time stochastic model based on a modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral density. Simple equations to show the response of the SFT due to underwater explosion attack were deduced.

This outcome can be justified by considering the higher stiffness characterizing the anchor bars near to the shore, and gives also reason for the higher elastic stresses depicted by Fig. The earthquake and seaquake motions accounts for the spatial variability of the seabed motion during an earthquake.

The spatial variation of the ground motion is represented with the coherency model of Luco and Wong [32].

The stiffness coefficient K and damping coefficient C of these elements are listed in Table 3. Model analysis done for 4 heading environment they are; 45 deg, 90 deg, deg dan deg.

In this respect, structural control solutions can help to meet the required high standards of safety, mitigating the tunnels responses and protecting the main structural elements.

## Underwater highway pdf

Even in this simplified analysis, that disregards seaquake effects, the bars closer to the shore show higher stress levels when the linear material behavior is implemented, or larger hysteretic cycles when the inelastic model is adopted. LN 2 experienced shear 0, in x direction and 1, in y direction. Special dissipation devices are assumed at these locations to avoid transmission of an excessive axial force in the tunnel. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from a comparison between the response of the case study SFT induced by "earthquake" and "earthquake plus seaquake". Only underwater structure will be analyzed in this analysis, which is 60 m length horizontally. Next step after hydrodynamci modeling is calculate response due to fluid which is influenced by wave fluids surrounding and fluids current in axial, vertical and transfersal. Artificial time histories of earthquake motion are generated in terms of transversal, vertical and longitudinal components at each support point, from these the displacements and velocities needed for the soil-structure interaction are derived by integration with suitable boundary conditions. The tunnel has a composite steel-concrete circular section and is connected to the seabed by means of slender steel beams having hollow circular section and pile foundations. This modelling use - 10 until 60 seconds which discretization with inner and outer simulation time, inner and outer time will recommend by Hydrodynamic approach. From those data we can see that each tension have different value for each cases. Preview Unable to display preview. Earthquake and seaquake motions are introduced accounting for spatial variability of the seabed motion during an earthquake. Figure 5 depicts the device longitudinal displacement-force path at the tunnel end. The three components of the seismic motion are applied to the foundations of the anchor bars and at tunnel end abutments, without inclusion of the effect of seaquake. Thicker solid lines represent results for the inelastic material behavior of the anchor bars while the thinner dashed lines for the elastic one.

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